Basic Step by Step - notes to step 18

now, then.

(whom), (whose).

Further examples of -ing-forms: coming,

going, saying, taking.

" The only ones of which examples have not

been given are; keeping, letting, seeming, and,


In this Step attention is again given to forms

of comparison, specially with more and most,

less and least.

" The shortest way to . . knowledge." A

simple and very common use of way for any

thing or process which may be pictured as the

road to a certain end.

" Less so." In addition to its use as a sign

of degree with the names of qualities and that

(see Step 16), so may be put in the place of the

name of a quality under discussion. " To be less

so " is " to have less of that quality which has been

named." The complete statement here would

be : " but it is less necessary for reading."-This

is very like the use of this or that in place of

the name of a thing, and, in fact, after do or say,

so is frequently used in place of this or that for

" the act, words, in question." An example of

this, " Please do so," is given later in the Step.

"'At the start." That is, at the start of the

process of learning reading.

"Early times." In talking of stretches of

time we say: " in past times," " in future

times," " in these times," and so on, to give the

idea of a general view. But we more commonly

say " in the time of a certain ruler," because we

are talking of a special time.

" A book did not have the form." For this use

of do with have and not, see N 15-2.

" Paper such as we have now." See the Note

on such, N17-2.

Whose. The owner-form of who.

Whom. The form of who which may be used

after the names of operations and directions.

Give attention to the position of to before whom.

(See Note on " which .. . for," Step 17).

" One day." One is regularly used without any

word of position before the names of parts of

time, with the sense of " on a certain day," and

so on. For this general pointing use of one, see

the Notes on Step 7.

" So I will do." This is a special development

of the use of so for pointing to some sort of

'that,' of which we have had two examples earlier

in this Step. So here does the work of " for that

reason," and is commonly used in this way for

joining statements of purpose or effect to others

which give their cause.

"A tight cord round it." Though round is the

name of a quality, by a simple development it

has come to be used as the name of a direction,

with the force of " in the form of a circle" (or,

loosely, of any curve which comes back to its

starting-point, or would do so if complete) ;

from this, by a further expansion, it takes on

the general sense of ' about', and is used of

motion or position framing or edging something,

not necessarily forming a curve, but having

the same quality of limiting things as a circle

has of limiting the space inside it.

Nowhere. The sense of this complex word

'no-where,' that is ' not any-where,' will be

clear from the senses of its parts and the example

of anywhere (see N 14-3).

" Much happier." For this use of much, see

N 17-3.-Take note that the y of happy is

changed to i before the -er, -est endings. This

is the rule for all names-of qualities ending in y.

The same change is made before the -ly ending

so that from happy we get happily.

Opposites: now-then.


Basic Step by Step - notes to step 19

The chief point for attention in this Step is the

use of the Special Past forms given in Steps 13

and 14 with have, as a sign that an operation is

(or was) complete before a certain point of time.

If this point is the present, the present forms of

have are used; if it is in the past, the past

form, had. We say " I have done it now " but

" I had done it then."

In addition to the forms listed in connection

with Steps 13 and 14, there are three others

which were not given there because they have

no use with be. These are been (be), seemed (seem)

and had (have). (It will be clear from the sense of

been and seemed why we do not say "is been "

or " is seemed," and so on. " Is had," on the

other hand, would not be wrong, but is not com-

monly used). It will be noted that only the first

is different from the form for the simple past

(was). All three are regularly used with have in

the same way as the others.

Like be (see the Note to Step 13), have may be

use€d with one of the special forms after any

form of will or may (" He will have come to-

morrow"); or it may be put before been and one

of the special forms to make statements from

the point of view of the thing acted on (" The

coat has, had, or will have, been made ") ; or

before been and one of the -ing forms to give the

idea of a process (" He has been doing this all the

day. " "If this had been being made while I was

there, I would have seen it "). In fact, all these

different forms may be put together in a great

number of ways, but the sense of these complex

groups is quite straightforward, and the learner

will have no trouble in building them up if he

keeps clearly in mind the idea he is attempting

to put forward and the simple rules of order so

far given. It has not been possible to give

examples of all such new groups in this and Step

20, but a number will be noted. Those in this

Step are : has been done, has been going, has gone,

has not got cold, did not have, have come, had made,

did not come.

" The earth." The expansion from earth as a

substance to the earth as the star covered by

that substance, and on which we are living, is a

very natural one, needing only to be pointed out

to be quite clear.

" Going round." See N 18-2.

" Makes a turn." Take note of this use of

make with turn.

" Every 24 hours." That is, " in every 24

hours." (See the Note on " every time," Step

14). In with the names of spaces of time

frequently, as here, gives the idea not of " at

one point in such a time " but of " while such a

time is going by."

" At the end of a year." Like most words

which are first used of space, end has come to be

used in addition, of time. But while things

in space have two ends,in time the word end has

regularly the sense only of 'the last part,'

because 'the first part' is covered by the word


" Other moons." A simple expansion from

the root sense, to that of any body in the sky

which, like our moon, goes round another.

" In a month." 'See the Note on " every 24


" Has not got cold." The reason why we say

has not got here, and had no plants and did not

have lower down will be made clear by the general

Note at the start. The first is a statement about

something which is complete (or not complete)

from the point of view of the present. The second

is simply a statement about the past.

" Here and there." A common general use of

the words, having the sense " in one place and

another." (See the Notes on " from one thing to

another " and " one fold after another," Steps

7 and 17.)

" Come into existence." Existence is here

parallel to' danger' and other conditions which'

by a fiction, are talked of as if they were spaces.

See the Notes to Step 7.

" Come from." Things produced by any

process of development from some other thing

are very naturally talked of as coming from it.


Basic Step by Step - notes to step 20

Complex forms to be noted here : have been,

has been given, have been taken, may not have

seemed, may not have been put, have not kept,

would have had, will have, has made.

History. In its root sense the word history is

the name given to an ordered account of the

train of events forming the past existence of

anything-a nation, a person, a house, an idea ;

but it has a very common special use in the sense

of " the recorded past of man ", and it is in this

sense that it is used as the heading of this Step.

" The time men have been on the earth" That

is, " the time in which men have been on the

earth." Which, together with any direction-

words coming before it, is frequently dropped

when the statement dependent on it has to do

with a time-word. The dependent statement

keeps the same order as it would have if which

and the direction-word were put in.

" Far from complete.'' The idea of distance,

like that of a number of space-words, is not

limited to physical things, and words like far

and near naturally have the same sort of ex-

pansion. The most important point is that in

this use they may be signs of a relation not only

between two things but between a thing and a


" One reason for this may be that." One of the

uses of that as a joining-word is to make the

connection between such words as reason.

idea, fact, and so on, and a fuller account of

what they are representative of. (See the Note to

Step 12).

" Much of the knowledge." For this use of

much (= 'a great part') with of,see the notes on

some, N7 -1 and most, N14-2.

" Any country," " every country." In this

Step we have examples of the expansion of

country as the opposite of town, to country as any

general division of the earth, and from that to

country as a political unit.

" As a guide." From its use in detailed

comparisons such as " in the same way as,"

" for the same purpose as," as comes to be used

by itself in a general way wherever there is a

feeling of such a comparison.

"A knowledge of its history." The use of a

before knowledge (and other general words) is

common when the word is limited by a quality-

word or in some other way, so that it is repre-

sentative not of the general thing 'knowledge'

but of some special branch or division or example

of it, which may be looked on as a unit. So we

say: He has a good knowledge of German. A

knowledge of science will be needed for the work.

This is very near to the use of a with names of

substances to give the sense " a sort of ", but

with words like knowledge there is no parallel

use of the form for more than one, as there is

with names of substances.

"An increase in the amount." In is commonly

used with such words as increase (change,

development), probably as a short form of " in

relation to." Of, which might seem more natural,

is generally possible, but in a statement such as

this in is better.

" As much a part of its record as." As much ...

as, in addition to the sense of " as great an

amount . . . as " (which is only another way of

saying ." an amount . . . as great as ") may

sometimes have that of " to as great a degree . . .



Basic Step by Step - notes to steps 21-30-text

By the end of Step 20 the learner has been

given all the facts about the framework of

Basic necessary for making himself clear, and

600 of the names of things and qualities generally

needed for that purpose. Steps 21 to 30 take

him on to names at a somewhat higher level, and

to a freer use of words and structure. He has

only three new general points to give attention

to: (l) the addition of the -er, -ing, and -ed

endings to 300 of the names of things'; (2) the

use of un- at the front of names of qualities for

forming their opposites; (3) the making of

owner-forms by the addition of 's (or ' by itself)

to the names of things. All the other points of

which the material in this group gives examples

are details of which any special account is

unnecessary here, because they are fully covered

in the ABC, pp. 90-162, and in The Basic Words.

The Notes to these Steps will for that reason

be no more than lists of the fixed word-groups,

€expansions of sense, special uses, less straight-

forward complex words, and words used in

new ways (an 'adjective' as an 'adverb', a

'noun' as an ' adjective', and so on) which are

to be noted in them. (As before only the

root sense of any new word will be given in

the list at the front of the Step. If, in addition,

an expansion or special use of it comes into

the story, the key to it is to be looked for

here). No attempt has been made, naturally,

to get all or even all the most important, of

these into ten Steps, but care has been taken

to give as representative a selection as possible.

The complete list of all the fixed word-groups

used in Basic is given in the ABC, and all expan-

sions, special uses and complex words, in The

Basic Words.

Though such points may be made clear in

words with a little trouble, the simplest way

of teaching a number of them is by the use of

pictures, of which we give three examples here.

As further examples of how such develop-

ments may be made simple and interesting with

the help of pictures, let us take the word-group

" (be) going to (do and so on)," the expansion

" the rest (of)," or the complex word " over-


A man is going into a book-store. He is

going-to get a book. He gives his order to

a woman, who says " I'll see if we have it."

While he is waiting, he is no longer 'going'

from one place to another, but he is still

" going to get a book," because the getting

of the book is still something in the future,

to which he is going in time.-The young

woman comes back : " Not in till Friday'".

So he is not going to get his book today. He

says : " Please put me down for a copy and

I will come for it on Friday."-He is going

to get his book on Friday.

A number of books are resting on the

table; the teacher takes some of them away

under his arm; then he comes back for

those which are still resting on the table,

that is, for the rest.

A small boy is going to his mother on

the other side of the room, with his eyes

fixed on her, looking over the cat which is

stretched out between ; he comes up against

the animal and has a fall : overlooking the

cat is one way of not seeing it.

There is a complete statement of the use of

the -er, -ing, -ed endings in the ABC, pp-82-89.

It will be noted that words formed by the

addition of -ed to names of things are used in

the same way as the Special Past forms of

operations looked on as names of qualities,

and those formed by the addition of -ing in the

same way as the -ing forms of operations. (See

Steps l8 and l7).


General points : " It was not till much later

that" " It is necessary to have." For this use of

it see The ABC,p.41, Note, and p.77.

" Take the place of." Give attention to this

general use of place.

Fixed word-groups : And so on ; there is;

to make. (For the special use of to see the ABC,

p. 128).

Expansions : invention; way; readily; right;

plate; bulb.

Complex words : without, away, airplane.

Used in new ways: early as ' adverb ' (" men

e. got ").


General points : Further examples of the use

of to before the names of operations (" an

impulse to," " enough to," " my reaction was to,"

"'seemed to," For this last example see ABC,

p. 112.)

The addition of un- to the names of qualities to

give the sense of 'not -' : unable. (See The

ABC p. 16).

Fixed word-groups : able to go ; go to sleep ;

of use ; for a time ; a look at : go on ; do damage.

Expansions: wood ;reason ; sense ; experience.

Special uses: feeling.

Used in new ways : back as ' adverb ' (" an

impulse to go b. ").

Take note in addition of: l. the common use of

go with names of qualities (=become),as seen here

in go cold; 2. the use of take and in with interest

(" took a great interest in") ; 3. " had a good

laugh," see N 10-4 and example noted on N 16-1.


General points: uncommon.

Fixed word-groups; in some way (in new ways,

and so on); (not) at all.

Expansions: work; painting;process; art..

Used in new ways: later as 'adverb/' ("did

not come till 1.);expert as 'adjective' (e.

way of doing").


Fixed word-groups : in exchange for ; depen-

dent on.

Expansions : goods; instrument; form; comfort.

Special uses: account.

Complex words : cooking-vessel, overlooked.


Fixed word-groups; (a hundred years ) old;

go on (getting); at present.

Expansions: day; hard; carriage.

Special uses: carriage;engine.

Complex words: horseback (on); steamship;


Take note further of:at the same rate;from

place to place; in comparison with; come to an

end; which are all simple developments of

earlier points.


General points : The addition of 's to the names

of things to make the owner-form: country's.

(See The ABC p.33 Note, and p. 35).

Fixed word-groups : love of; conscious of ;

one another ; belief in ; put an end to ; give up;

have to ; put up with : an attack on ; take into

account; take part in;at war.


arms ; view; point.

Complex words:outcome;present-day.

Take note of the number-words hundred (100)

and, thousand (1,000).


Fixed word-groups: in addition.

Expansions: sense; writing; marked.

Special uses: motion; fiction.

Used in new ways: first, second, as 'adverbs'

(" f., to any sound"), and as 'nouns' ("the f.

is a statement" and so on).


General points: person's.

Fixed word-groups: (take) care of; expert at;

in need of.

Expansions: young; wrong.

Special uses; existence; judge.

Complex words: become; whenever; them-

selves (see The ABC, p.56, Note, for this and the

parallel forms: herself, himself, itself, myself,

ourselves, yourself, yourselves).

New form: farther (farthest).

Used in new ways: good as 'noun' (" all

this g."); wrong as 'noun' ("do w."), N 21-5.



General points: unwise.

Fixed word-groups:control of; out of.

Expansions: rule;chance;question;repre-


Special uses: force.

Complex words: wherever.

Used in new ways: public as 'noun' ("the

p."); representative as 'adjective' ("r. govern-

ment" and so on); military as 'noun' ("the



General points : body's; the use of ' by itself

as the owner-sign at the end of a form for more

than one ending in s : the Greeks' time.

Fixed word-groups : in order : in motion ;

take place ; different from.

Expansions: branch ; field.

Complex words : boiling-point,