Basic Step by Step - notes to steps
By the end of Step 20 the learner has
given all the facts about the framework
Basic necessary for making himself
600 of the names of things and
needed for that purpose. Steps 21 to 30
him on to names at a somewhat higher
to a freer use of words and structure.
only three new general points to give
to: (l) the addition of the -er, -ing,
endings to 300 of the names of things';
use of un- at the front of names of
forming their opposites; (3) the making
owner-forms by the addition of 's (or '
to the names of things. All the other
which the material in this group gives
are details of which any special
unnecessary here, because they are
in the ABC, pp. 90-162, and in The
The Notes to these Steps will for
be no more than lists of the fixed
€expansions of sense, special uses,
forward complex words, and words used
new ways (an 'adjective' as an
'noun' as an ' adjective', and so on)
to be noted in them. (As before only
root sense of any new word will be
the list at the front of the Step. If,
an expansion or special use of it comes
the story, the key to it is to be
here). No attempt has been made,
to get all or even all the most
these into ten Steps, but care has been
to give as representative a selection
The complete list of all the fixed
used in Basic is given in the ABC, and
sions, special uses and complex words,
Though such points may be made clear
words with a little trouble, the
of teaching a number of them is by the
pictures, of which we give three
As further examples of how such
ments may be made simple and
the help of pictures, let us take the
" (be) going to (do and so on),"
" the rest (of)," or the
complex word " over-
A man is going into a book-store.
going-to get a book. He gives his order
a woman, who says " I'll see if we
While he is waiting, he is no longer
from one place to another, but he is
" going to get a book,"
because the getting
of the book is still something in the
to which he is going in time.-The young
woman comes back : " Not in till
So he is not going to get his book
says : " Please put me down for a
I will come for it on Friday."-He
to get his book on Friday.
A number of books are resting on the
table; the teacher takes some of them
under his arm; then he comes back for
those which are still resting on the
that is, for the rest.
A small boy is going to his mother
the other side of the room, with his
fixed on her, looking over the cat
stretched out between ; he comes up
the animal and has a fall : overlooking
cat is one way of not seeing it.
There is a complete statement of the
the -er, -ing, -ed endings in the ABC,
It will be noted that words formed by
addition of -ed to names of things are
the same way as the Special Past forms
operations looked on as names of
and those formed by the addition of
-ing in the
same way as the -ing forms of
Steps l8 and l7).
General points : " It was not
till much later
that" " It is
necessary to have." For this use of
it see The ABC,p.41, Note, and
" Take the place of." Give
attention to this
general use of place.
Fixed word-groups : And so on ;
to make. (For the special use of
to see the ABC,
Expansions : invention; way;
Complex words : without, away,
Used in new ways: early as '
adverb ' (" men
e. got ").
General points : Further examples
of the use
of to before the names of
operations (" an
impulse to," " enough
to," " my reaction was to,"
"'seemed to," For this
last example see ABC,
The addition of un- to the
names of qualities to
give the sense of 'not -' : unable.
ABC p. 16).
Fixed word-groups : able to go ;
go to sleep ;
of use ; for a time ; a look at : go
on ; do damage.
Expansions: wood ;reason ; sense
Special uses: feeling.
Used in new ways : back as '
adverb ' (" an
impulse to go b. ").
Take note in addition of: l. the
common use of
go with names of qualities
(=become),as seen here
in go cold; 2. the use of take
and in with interest
(" took a great interest in")
; 3. " had a good
laugh," see N 10-4 and
example noted on N 16-1.
word-groups; in some way
(in new ways,
so on); (not) at all.
in new ways: later as
come till 1.);expert
as 'adjective' (e.
way of doing").
Fixed word-groups : in exchange
for ; depen-
Expansions : goods; instrument;
Special uses: account.
Complex words : cooking-vessel,
word-groups; (a hundred years ) old;
on (getting); at
day; hard; carriage.
note further of:at the
place to place;
in comparison with; come to an
which are all simple
General points : The addition of 's
to the names
of things to make the owner-form:
(See The ABC p.33 Note, and p. 35).
Fixed word-groups : love of;
conscious of ;
one another ; belief in ; put an end
to ; give up;
have to ; put up with : an attack on
; take into
account; take part in;at war.
arms ; view; point.
Take note of the number-words
and, thousand (1,000).
word-groups: in addition.
sense; writing; marked.
Used in new
ways: first, second, as 'adverbs'
(" f., to any
sound"), and as 'nouns' ("the f.
is a statement"
and so on).
word-groups: (take) care of; expert at;
in need of.
become; whenever; them-
The ABC, p.56, Note, for this and the
herself, himself, itself, myself,
Used in new
ways: good as 'noun' (" all
wrong as 'noun' ("do w."), N 21-5.
in new ways: public
as 'noun' ("the
'adjective' ("r. govern-
and so on); military
as 'noun' ("the
General points : body's; the
use of ' by itself
as the owner-sign at the end of a form
than one ending in s : the
Fixed word-groups : in order : in
take place ; different from.
Expansions: branch ; field.
Complex words : boiling-point,