Basic Step by Step - notes to step 10
how, when, while,
The chief point to which attention
is to be
given in this Step is the forming of
which may be answered by 'Yes' or 'No',
putting the name of an operation or
first and the name of the person or
the operation second. This simple
order is used with the helping-words
may, and with all forms of be
and have. The rule
for forming questions with the other
operations will be given in a later
Time is the general framework
of our experience
in which all events seem to take place;
time is any part or point of it.
These two uses
have so clear and natural a connection
it will be necessary to give special
to it only when the language of the
two words for these two sides of the
Bed-cover. The sense of this
complex word will
give no trouble if the learner has
clearly in mind
the quite general sense of the word
" anything covering."
Awake is different from most
of the other
names of qualities, in not ever being
the name of a thing. It is chiefly
used, as in
this example, after some form of be.
" Good-morning," "
Good night." These are
fixed forms such as all languages have
purposes. The sense of the words is
" A good night to you ! "
that is, " it is my hope
that you will have a good night."
which are put before and after them ("
regularly used when we are giving the
as said by another person, or by
" Are you awake?" A
very important point
is that are is used in connection with
to whom one is talking, though it is
we have seen, the form for more than
one (" we
are." " they are ").
"Get up!" This is
an example of the use of get
in connection with ourselves (or our
some direction,which has been noted in
and seen again in Step 9. But though we
"get up" from anywhere, the
act of getting,up
from our beds in the morning is so
the words " get up," with no
further details, are
specially used in this sense.
"After that." See
the Note on " That is why"'
"In the morning,"
" On some mornings"' On,
like in and other names of
directions, is frequently
used in connection with time. The key
right use of direction-words in
time in English is:at a point
('at this minute,'
; at half-past four'), on a line
(' on Monday,' ' on
that day'), in a circle (in that
year). (See ABC, pp. 117 and 125). The
of on and in is dependent on the
way in which
the space of time is being talked about
We say " on some mornings,"
because the morning
is here taken as the line;"but "
in the morning. "
because it is there clearly looked on
as the circle.
These rules will be of use as a
but it is only by experience that the
get the feeling for the right uses.
"After I go,"
"Before I am." The sense of
before and after here
clearly has to do with time,
and will give no trouble, but the fact
words are used for joining statements
is to be
" A knot in my sock."
A very important
development of in. From its root
which a foot, for example, might be in
it comes naturally to have that of any
in which something is between the
some other thing and it is used
more detailed statement of the position
important. From this point of view, a
may have a knot or a hole in it,
as clearly as it
may have a person's foot.
" Ready before I am."
The complete state-
ment would be " ready before I am
in such comparisons the quality (or
word in question is commonly not put in
" We were ready."
Were is the form used in
place of are when talking of
" While I am in the
bathroom, he may . . . ,"
" When I have on... I take.
.." While and
when are two more joining-words
starting dependent statements. They are
one another in the fact that the
joined on by them have to do with
statements make clear that something
or going on for a certain space
of time measured
by the statement : when-statements
thing was true or took place at (in,
or on) the
time pointed to by the statement. But
unlike in that while-statements
may be used only
in relation to an act or condition
named by an
operator in another statement ;
on the other hand, have in addition to
this use a
use after time-names (like the use of
place-names), as in " the time
when we were
young." Statements headed by
while, or by
when in the first use, may come
before or after
the statement on which they are
the same way as statements headed by if
Everything. Every, some, no,
and any (see N 14-2)
are used with thing for forming
of which the sense is quite
their full uses see the Note on thing
"But my coat." The
sense of this is : " but I
have not my coat on." Everyone
will have a
feeling of the connection between the
"on the other hand," given in
the use of but
between statements, and its sense when
" That is how the
mornings go." How is the
word used for joining a statement of
event, or process to an account of the
which it is done. That is here
the account (which is given in the
which it is pointing); how makes
between it and the process (the going
mornings). See the Note on " That
is why," Step 9.
Morning in this statement has
sense of "time between sun-up and
12 a.m., or,
more loosely, the middle-day meal."
pansion has its parallel in a number of
but because others have a different
word for this
sense, it will be well to give
attention to the point.
The use of go here is based
on so natural and
general a feeling of the motion of time
is probably unnecessary to make a point
"Through my hair."
It will be noted that in
talking of the "hairs " on
our heads, the form
for number is not used. This is because
viewed not as separate things but as
one cover. In reading, the learner may
across other examples of this trick of
form for one when a number of things
as a group, but this is the only one
which it is
important€ for him to make use of
"Do work." "
have play," " have a rest,"
" have a wash." When
to make use of have and
when of do or some other ' operator '
of acts is something for which there is
rule. It may be said generally that,
for the reason
given on N3-2, names of acts which are
from the point of view of the
experience of doing
them, that is, as events or processes
of the doer's experience, take have;
those, on the
other hand, in which the idea of
effect outside ourselves is strongest
take do or
some other operator (see N l4-l and N
this is only a rough guide ; the uses
are fixed, and every example is to be
"All the day. "
Day is here used as " the time
between sun-up and sun-down," that
is, as the
opposite of 'night.' See the note on '
Today. Though the sense of
this complex word
would not be completely clear from
its parts, by the help of a comparison
morrow it will readily be fixed
in the mind.
" Go to bed," "
ready for bed," " in bed."
Bed is regularly used without
the, a, or any
other pointing word (such as my
and so on),
when what we have in mind is not simply
'thing' ' bed ' but the resting process
for which beds are used, and of which
has become representative. Take note
the sense is clearly only that of the
thing ' bed ',
a or the or some other
such word has to be used,
as in the earlier part of the Step '
put my shoe
far under the bed."
" Are you ready?"
You is used equally in
talking to one person or more than one.
is clearly the two boys to whom it is