Basic Step by Step - notes to step 8
Take note here of the complex words
animal (animal for use on a
(building for fowls), and farm-house,
the farmer on a farm).
" The only tree."
Though only is among those
words which are used for limiting the
operations or qualities, it may in
most of the others in this group, take
of a quality word itself, but only
after the or an
owner-form (such as my),
" In the field is an old goat."
words for place, time, and so on are
put first in
a statement (see Notes on Step 4) and
nothing more to come after the
name of the doer,' which would normally
before it may be put at the end, and if
is be, it has to be put there, as in
The straightforward order, "An old
goat is in the
field," is, however, at all times
quite clear, and
though these possible changes may be
the learner, he will do well not to
make use of
them at the start, specially when the
named by I, he, she, and so on.
" Give my body a push."
Give is frequently used
without to before the name of
the getter, and
then the order is changed, and the name
is given comes last. This is an
important trick of
natural English, and the learner will
do well to
give special attention to every example
of it he
may come across, and to the fuller
in the ABC p. 103. It is a safe rule
for the learner
that this change of order is not to be
when what is given is named by one of
' pronouns ' it, him, her, and
Sheep has no special form for
more than one.
We say equally " one sheep (is) "
and " two sheep
"'In others," Other
may not only be used
without a name after it, but when it is
so used one
makes the addition of s for more
than one, as with
the name of a thing. Unlike other words
sort (see N7-4), other may be used,
name after it only in the form of the
word, another or when it has the, my
and so on
before it ; others, on the other
hand, may be used
by itself, as here.
Leaves See the Note on forms
for number at
the end of Step 5.
" We do not see any
flowers." The sense of this
statement is the same as if we said "
We see no
flowers," that is, not . . .
any=no. The word any
has roughly the same sense as some,
but it is used
differently, regularly taking the place
of some in
not-statements, and commonly in
if-statements, so that in fact
it has-the effect of
"even one " or " one bit
of, however small." The
use of any in other sorts of
statement will be
noted later (see N14-2) ; for the
present, it is to
be used by the learner only in the sort
" Places where the
weather is still warm," The
joining-word where may, as here,
be put after a
word naming a place, for hanging onto
statement about conditions or events
that is, it may have the force of "
to (in, at)
which " (place). Or it may be used
for starting q
dependent statement making clear the
at act or condition named by the
another statement, as in : They go
weather is warm-that is, it may
have the force
of " to (in, at) a place at
Basic Step by Step -notes to step 9
Which. The form of who used with the
of things and animals. It may be used
or more than one,
" Over my body." A thing
which is over
another may be at a distance from it or
it may be
touching it. This second sense is very
like that of
on, but it has in addition the idea of
"On my body " would be
equally possible here,
but it would not give as clear an idea
" That is why I keep . . ."
This and that are
used for pointing not only at physical
but at acts, facts, events; or
anything, that is, which may be '
pointed at' by
the mind. This is a simple expansion of
the idea of
pointing which it will be well to make
there is no change in the sense of this
or that. In
our example that is equal to " the
fact that if I
get a grain of sand in my eye the pain
very great," and, why is the
regular sign of
connection between a reason and what it
given as a reason for.
" I keep it from my face."
As we may get
things into any direction or condition,
parallel development we may keep them
direction or condition. In this sense
frequently the opposite of let . . .
go, and keeping
sand from my face is the opposite of
letting it go to
it (or on it). The later example, "
small boys and
girls keep (themselves) together "
is parallel in
structure to " they get
(themselves) in the
current " and so on.
" All the sand." What is
limited by all in this
statement is clearly not the general
sand, but the sand which has been
having been put on the body. For this
the is needed, and take note that all
is put before
it. All is the only ' adjective' which
before the, this, that, my and so on
" Even they." Even may be
used, as here,
before the names of persons or
things,or it may
equally be put before the names of
("Even small boys " and so
on) or operations
("The wind even made a hole in
tbe sail ") or
groups of words making clear how, when,
where(" The boat was wet even
before we got
in"). The sense is unchanged in
all these uses,
the only point to be kept in mind is
even regularly comes before the word or
limited by it.. Naturally, in
helping-words,, may, do, and so on, its
not before the helping-word, but before
operation itself (" We did not
even 99 ")' .
" Safely." An important
point to be noted ln
this Step is the addition of -ly to
qualities to make forms which may be
limiting-words in connection with acts.
ABC, page 40, for a detailed account.
"Danger from a mist." In
the same way as
light comes from a fire, so, by a
danger, pain, pleasure, hope, or any
condition may be said to come from that
which it is caused.
"Far out." The direction
of the land, with its
harbours into which ships come, is
pictured as in; that of the unlimited
sea , as out. We have the same sort
about going from the land as we have
going out from our houses.
"We see great ships."
Again this we is general
What has the sense of " that
thing at which that is pointing being
by the words which come after it; and
it is used
in complex statements in the same way
which. The part of the statement
what may come before the chief
here, or after it (' the smoke is what
we see ").
Basic Step by Step - notes to step 10
how, when, while,
The chief point to which attention
is to be
given in this Step is the forming of
which may be answered by 'Yes' or 'No',
putting the name of an operation or
first and the name of the person or
the operation second. This simple
order is used with the helping-words
may, and with all forms of be
and have. The rule
for forming questions with the other
operations will be given in a later
Time is the general framework
of our experience
in which all events seem to take place;
time is any part or point of it.
These two uses
have so clear and natural a connection
it will be necessary to give special
to it only when the language of the
two words for these two sides of the
Bed-cover. The sense of this
complex word will
give no trouble if the learner has
clearly in mind
the quite general sense of the word
" anything covering."
Awake is different from most
of the other
names of qualities, in not ever being
the name of a thing. It is chiefly
used, as in
this example, after some form of be.
" Good-morning," "
Good night." These are
fixed forms such as all languages have
purposes. The sense of the words is
" A good night to you ! "
that is, " it is my hope
that you will have a good night."
which are put before and after them ("
regularly used when we are giving the
as said by another person, or by
" Are you awake?" A
very important point
is that are is used in connection with
to whom one is talking, though it is
we have seen, the form for more than
one (" we
are." " they are ").
"Get up!" This is
an example of the use of get
in connection with ourselves (or our
some direction,which has been noted in
and seen again in Step 9. But though we
"get up" from anywhere, the
act of getting,up
from our beds in the morning is so
the words " get up," with no
further details, are
specially used in this sense.
"After that." See
the Note on " That is why"'
"In the morning,"
" On some mornings"' On,
like in and other names of
directions, is frequently
used in connection with time. The key
right use of direction-words in
time in English is:at a point
('at this minute,'
; at half-past four'), on a line
(' on Monday,' ' on
that day'), in a circle (in that
year). (See ABC, pp. 117 and 125). The
of on and in is dependent on the
way in which
the space of time is being talked about
We say " on some mornings,"
because the morning
is here taken as the line;"but "
in the morning. "
because it is there clearly looked on
as the circle.
These rules will be of use as a
but it is only by experience that the
get the feeling for the right uses.
"After I go,"
"Before I am." The sense of
before and after here
clearly has to do with time,
and will give no trouble, but the fact
words are used for joining statements
is to be
" A knot in my sock."
A very important
development of in. From its root
which a foot, for example, might be in
it comes naturally to have that of any
in which something is between the
some other thing and it is used
more detailed statement of the position
important. From this point of view, a
may have a knot or a hole in it,
as clearly as it
may have a person's foot.
" Ready before I am."
The complete state-
ment would be " ready before I am
in such comparisons the quality (or
word in question is commonly not put in
" We were ready."
Were is the form used in
place of are when talking of
" While I am in the
bathroom, he may . . . ,"
" When I have on... I take.
.." While and
when are two more joining-words
starting dependent statements. They are
one another in the fact that the
joined on by them have to do with
statements make clear that something
or going on for a certain space
of time measured
by the statement : when-statements
thing was true or took place at (in,
or on) the
time pointed to by the statement. But
unlike in that while-statements
may be used only
in relation to an act or condition
named by an
operator in another statement ;
on the other hand, have in addition to
this use a
use after time-names (like the use of
place-names), as in " the time
when we were
young." Statements headed by
while, or by
when in the first use, may come
before or after
the statement on which they are
the same way as statements headed by if
Everything. Every, some, no,
and any (see N 14-2)
are used with thing for forming
of which the sense is quite
their full uses see the Note on thing
"But my coat." The
sense of this is : " but I
have not my coat on." Everyone
will have a
feeling of the connection between the
"on the other hand," given in
the use of but
between statements, and its sense when
" That is how the
mornings go." How is the
word used for joining a statement of
event, or process to an account of the
which it is done. That is here
the account (which is given in the
which it is pointing); how makes
between it and the process (the going
mornings). See the Note on " That
is why," Step 9.
Morning in this statement has
sense of "time between sun-up and
12 a.m., or,
more loosely, the middle-day meal."
pansion has its parallel in a number of
but because others have a different
word for this
sense, it will be well to give
attention to the point.
The use of go here is based
on so natural and
general a feeling of the motion of time
is probably unnecessary to make a point
"Through my hair."
It will be noted that in
talking of the "hairs " on
our heads, the form
for number is not used. This is because
viewed not as separate things but as
one cover. In reading, the learner may
across other examples of this trick of
form for one when a number of things
as a group, but this is the only one
which it is
important€ for him to make use of
"Do work." "
have play," " have a rest,"
" have a wash." When
to make use of have and
when of do or some other ' operator '
of acts is something for which there is
rule. It may be said generally that,
for the reason
given on N3-2, names of acts which are
from the point of view of the
experience of doing
them, that is, as events or processes
of the doer's experience, take have;
those, on the
other hand, in which the idea of
effect outside ourselves is strongest
take do or
some other operator (see N l4-l and N
this is only a rough guide ; the uses
are fixed, and every example is to be
"All the day. "
Day is here used as " the time
between sun-up and sun-down," that
is, as the
opposite of 'night.' See the note on '
Today. Though the sense of
this complex word
would not be completely clear from
its parts, by the help of a comparison
morrow it will readily be fixed
in the mind.
" Go to bed," "
ready for bed," " in bed."
Bed is regularly used without
the, a, or any
other pointing word (such as my
and so on),
when what we have in mind is not simply
'thing' ' bed ' but the resting process
for which beds are used, and of which
has become representative. Take note
the sense is clearly only that of the
thing ' bed ',
a or the or some other
such word has to be used,
as in the earlier part of the Step '
put my shoe
far under the bed."
" Are you ready?"
You is used equally in
talking to one person or more than one.
is clearly the two boys to whom it is
Basic Step by Step- notes to step 11
We come now to the form-change which
necessary in all names of operations
act is said to be done in the present
by one thing
(that is, when put after any word
person or thing). This special form is
made by the simple addition of ' s,'
but in do and
go an 'e' is put before the '
s' (does, goes), and in
have, the last two letters are
dropped before the
' s''(has). Last on the list
comes is, the special
form of be, which came in in
Step l. Examples of
eight of these forms are given here,
the others in
"At the right side and
. . . at the left." Here
are two more words, left and
right, to be put on
the list of those after which the name
of a thing
may be dropped when the sense is clear
it. See N7-4.
Like. The quality for which
like is a sign is one
which things have only in comparison
things. For this reason its behaviour
nearer to that of the name of a
direction than to
that of a quality, that is, it comes
before the name
of the second of two things between
comparison is being made, sometimes
two'(for example," The base of the
parts like knives ") ; sometimes,
when the first
name is put before some form of be,
that (for example, " The parts are
like knives ');
sometimes, as here, coming after the
name of the
quality in which the one is s aid to be
like the other.
-Like may however, be used in
the same way as a
simple quality-word : Like effects
from like causes. A like attempt was
made before. The
'two brothers are very like.(But
see ABC p. 58.)
--But it is to be noted that before
(as in the first two examples)
like generally has the sense '
of the same sort '
and that in such statements it is more
an English person to make use of these
of the same : The same effects
frequently have the
same causes. The same attempt was
" When you give the
machine a push." We
have here a use of you very like
the general we
noted in Steps 7 and 9. The statement
clearly not limited to any special
'you' who is
being talked to. It is representative
of " a person, "
" anyone," and is commonly
used in this sense in
English where in some other languages a
word would be necessary (as 'man' in
'on' in French). English has, itself,
such a special
'word,' one,' but it is much
less used for everyday
purposes than you (or we,
which frequently gives
the some effect as you).
Sometimes. This complex word
is used in
place of " at some times,"
the sense of which
will be quite clear from the sense of
" With care." The
use of with here is quite
straightforward, the only point being
that it is
a sign of connection, not between two
but between an operation and the
mind (sometimes, as here, having an
the act) of the person who does it.
Knives. See Note at the end
of Step 5.
Match-machines. Machines from
of matches may be got if money is put
"As quick as."
Another point for special
attention in connection with this Step
making of statements of comparison
that two things are (or are not)
of equal degree in
some way by the use of the joining-word
The ABC, p.80.
" Very quickly." In
addition to its general
use before names of qualities, and its
before near and far, very
is used before words
formed with the ending -ly (and,
others, such as
well, used in the same way).
On the three pages after this we give
example of another sort of
covering the new words given in this
Basic Step by Step - notes to step 12
(her), (him), (me), (your)
This Step is in the form of a talk
persons, and their words are put
marks "-" as a sign that
statements are being
made, first by one and then the other.
Attention is again to be given here
to the use
of as ... as, noted in
connection with Step ll,
in pointing out that one thing (or act)
not, equal in some way to another, of
use we now have a number of examples.
Business. The first sense of
the word business
is "what one does for a living or
as one's regular
work." From this it is a very
to the sense of "trade, and all
the forms of
work which have a special connection
It is in this second sense that the
word is used
as the heading of this Step, and in "
with," and " in business,'
lower down. " What
is the business of your
father?" gives us an
example of the first sense
What? Questions needing
answers other than
'Yes' or ' No' are formed by putting
certain words (up to now used only as
words) at the front of a simple
question, (or, with
our first example, what, it may
be at the front of
a statement, as will be made clear on
make clear the sort of answer desired.
used in this way for requesting the
name or some
account of the thing, quality, and so
to by the rest of the question. The
relation of this
use of what to its use as a
readily be seen from the present
you are interested in learning "
what the business
of . . . is " (see N9-2),
you put the question :
"What is the business of .
. . ? " It is to be noted
that what may be used by itself,
as in the first
two examples given in this Step, or
name of a thing, as in the third, when
is limited by the name to some special
and so on of the thing about which
desired. " What is this?"
is answered by a
general statement about " this ;"
but " What
"colour (size, sort of thing,
and so on) is this?"is
answered by a special statement about
colour (size and so on).
" Your father."
Your is the owner-form for you'
" No, he is only . . . "
In addition to its root
use as "not any,"no is
used as the opposite of yes,
" Does the store make
much profit ? " A most
important new point in this Step is the
use of the
word do, as a helping-word in
with all 'operators' but be,
have(But see N15-2),
may , and will.
In such questions do, like the
words (see N10-1). is put before the
name of the
person or thing doing the operation,
name of the operation itself comes
Take note that when the question is
person or thing, it is do which
takes the form-
change" (does) and not the
name of the operation.
(Statements with do and not
are covered by the
Though the simplest example
of making is forming a physical
thing, it has the
general sense of causing anything to
existence by any conscious act or
'profit' (that is, an addition to
effected in certain ways) is quite
(though clearly it may equally well be
" What does a manager
do?" lt is to be noted
that there are two sorts of questions
with what. In one sort, that
knowledge is desired is the doer
operation is being talked about, and
is formed simply by putting what in
of the name of this 'doer.' So
we say " What
makes (takes, keeps, and so on) this?"
is no change of order, and to make the
question into a statement we have only
put some name in the place of what.
the second sort of question what
sentative not of the doer of the
of that produced by the operation, or
the operation is done, and when this is
what is still placed at the
front, the part which
comes after it is in itself a question,
changing the word-order and making use
of ' do',
if necessary, under the rule. In other
we say" What does he take?"
not " What takes
he?" What profit does tho store
not " What profit makes the
He does not let me go with
him." Me is the
form of I, and him of he,
used after names of
operations or directions for naming the
acted on or pointed to. (But take note
special forms are not used after be.)
which examples are given lower down, is
parallel form of she. At this
point, having now
seen most of such forms in use, it will
for the learner to get by heart the
on p.76 of The ABC in examples, though
teachers it may seem better not to put
before him till every form has been
used in the
"She says that . .. "
This use of that as a
joining-word between say and the
what is said-when this is not put
marks "-" to give the effect
of the person
himself talking-is an example of a more
rule by which all opinions or
joined to the word (such as say)
or words (such
as have an idea, feeling, and so
on) on which they
are dependent,by that. A fuller
this rule is given in the ABC' P. 59.
" The market price,"
" the store price." That
is, " the price at the market "
and so on. A
further example of the way in which the
of a thing may be used as the name of a
" The price is not as
great." Take note that
in a comparison with as . . . as,
the second as
and what comes after it may be dropped
sense is clear without it. The complete
here would be: " . . . not as
great as the store
" She does not got as much
for it." Here the
complete comparison is a little less
forward. The full form would be: "
not get as much for it at the market as
she gets at
the store." Give special
attention to this use of
as . . . as for joining statements, of
somewhat different example, using not a
quality-word but an -ly form,
may be seen in :
" They do the work today as
quickly as (they did
it) when they were young."-Much
in the state-
ment under discussion clearly has the
" much good fruit," and so
gives us another
word for the list started in connection
another N7-4. The same thing is
true of its
" The store sends." When
there is no reason
for naming the special persons who are
for any part of the work of an
group), the organization itself is said
to do the
" He was in a boot and shoe
the work by which we get our livings is
done in some special building,
we come naturally
enough to say of a person that he is
in such a
place in the sense that he does his
there. What we are talking about makes
point clear. In this example the
the father " was in a boot and
shoe store "
would have no sense if taken in any
Opposites : yes-(no)
Basic Step by Step - notes to step 13
(his), (their), (them).
(more, most), (less, least), than.
In this Step we come to a very
point : the forming of quality-words
names of operations. Such words have in
a use with have to make complex
and so are named " special past
come, let, and put are
used in this way with no
change of form. The changes in the
all different, and attention has to be
to every one separately. Those used in
Step are :,done (do), given
(give), gone (go),
got (get), kept (keep),
made (make), put, sent
(send), taken (take).
As quality-words these are used
chiefly after be.
Because the quality to which such words
pointing is the effect of an act (done
to something), by with the name
of that which
does it, and to with the name of
that to which it
is done, frequently come after them.
In addition, we have here an
further step in the comparison story:
the use of
more and most (and less
and least) before names
of qualities and -ly forms as a
sign of degree, and
the use of more (less) . , ,
than for comparisons
pointing out that two things are (or
are not) of
unequal degree in some way. The
such statements is parallel with that
parisons made with the help of as .
. . as, and they
may take all the same forms. (See
" When you go."
This is clearly the general
you (see N11-3).
" You give money for."
This is the second
important use of for, as a sign
of exchange. It is
very near in sense to the first (see
the Note to Step
5), because when we give
something for something
we give the one for the purpose
of getting the
other. When we get something for
are going a little further from the
root sense, but
it is only the same idea turned round,
a further development the sense of
be completely dropped, as in such
statements as :
" He got only blows for his work."
" Gives you credit,"
" is sent to you." Take
note that you has no special
form for use after
names of operations and directions.
" Puts down on paper."
It is clear that, in the
act of writing, the position of the
paper is such
that we normally do 'put' words 'down,'
may, equally, put them ' up ' on the
but 'putting down' in connection with
things as words, letters, or numbers,
has come to
have the general sense of 'writing,'
thought of the direction of the arm,
frequently used even in talking of such
Their is the owner-form for
they. His and her,
which are used lower down, are the
forms of he and she.
" From which we may see."
Because the eye
is our chief instrument of observation,
it is not
strange that the act of seeing has
representative of whatever takes place
minds when things become clear to us.
not see the valuer of the money,
in the simple sense
of see, but we get a knowledge
of it. And we get
this knowledge from the stamp,
which is a quite
straightforward use of the word from.
" Great bits ...get...."
That is, we get
more for great bits; but it is
very natural for
any instrument to be talked of as
the act which it makes possible.
" More things,"
"get more than." In addition
to its 'adverb' use before
quality-words as a
sign of degree, more,like much
itself, may be used
before names of things (that is, as an
or independently (as a 'pronoun'), in
the sense of
" a greater amount or number (of)
". The same
thing is true of less. Most
and least have like
uses, but with certain conditions, to
are now coming (and see N14-2 and
" The most value . .
.the least." The is commonly
used before most, least, and the
-est forms of
quality-words (to which attention will
later) because such words are signs of
point on any scale of comparison, and
only one such point. On the scale
quality, there are any number of
may be said to be 'more ' or 'less' in
some other, but only one is 'most' or
it is the most, or the
least.-Take note of the
dropping of the word ' value ' after
least, and of
the fact that a word may be dropped in
not only after much and little
but after all their
forms of degree (more,most, less,
example in this Step is " . . . no
money, or very
" Very little." The
general rule, as has been
noted (N4-2, N7-3, N11-3) is that very
only before the names of qualities and
or other ' adverbs ' of like use. But
in addition it
may come before much and little
before more, most, and so on)
however these are
used-as 'adverbs', as 'adjectives' of
before a name, or, as here, as
Them. The form for they
which' is used, like
him and her, only after
the names of operations
(not be) and directions.
Basic Step by Step - notes to step 14
The chief teaching-point here is the
use of the
-er ending in place of more
and of the -est ending
in place of most as signs of
degree or in compari-
sons using than. With some names
these endings are normally used, but
not possible with all, so the learner
will be wise
to make use of more and most
till he is quite
certain which names may have the
There are, however, two words, good
which have special forms for comparison
never take more and most
before them, and these
it will be necessary to keep in memory
start. The comparison of bad'
(worse, worst) is
given in this Step; that of good
will come into
Further examples of the special past
operation words : said (say),
and seen (see).
" Like that of,"
that is, " like the sound of."
That may frequently take the
place of a word
which has been used before in the same
ment. The sense of that in this
use is quite
normal. It is simply pointing back to
" Give a cough or
sneeze." Here is our first
example of the use of an operator other
have or do with the names
of acts, and attention
is again to be given to the general
note on this
point, N10-4. Give is used
specially for the pro-
ducing of acts which are short and
give cries, coughs, sneezes,
laughs, and so on.
The relation of this use to the simple
of give will readily be seen ;
it is only a step from
the idea of giving to some special
thing to that of giving generally, to
about us. " Give attention,"
which is seen further
down, is an even more straightforward
because attention, care and other acts
mind are, in fact, done in the
direction of, or
given to, special things, which are
said to get
them from us.
Our is the owner-form for we,
and us is the
form for we parallel to me,
her, him, and them
Cow-bell. Bell fixed to a
" Not one word . . . comes
to your ears." This
is a simple statement of what takes
though it will give no trouble, it may
out to those whose language does not
idea in the same way.
" The sun goes down."
Again a simple account
of what is clear from observation,
Night-bird. Clearly,bird of a
sort which is
awake at night.
" Makes a noise."
Take note that we say
makes and not gives a
" Any person." Any
has two uses, In the first,
as we have seen, it has a sense like
some and is commonly used in
place of some in
questions and in statements with not.
second, in other sorts of statement, it
special idea of a free selection of
'one' or 'some'
(=" it is not important which")
and so some-
times has the force of all or every.
" any man would do that "
comes to the same
thing as " every man would do
that." In the
present statement " when any
person " has the
same force as " every time a
" Those . . . made by the
example of the very important use of by
pointing to the producer or cause of
" Most of the noises."
The is regularly dropped
before most when it is used with
of in the same
way as much (see N7-1), in the
sense of " the
greatest number or part ". But
note of the fact that this is not true
of least, which
is never used with of in a
" Takes our attention off
our work." Taking
attention off anything is the
natural opposite of
keeping it on that thing, and it
is not hard to see
why attention is pictured as being on
the same way as a ray of light is
looked on as
being on them.
" One of the worst."
Here we have an example
of the use of one with of
noted in connection with
the like use of some (N7-1). The
sense is simply
" a noise of the group '
the worst noises'." In
addition, take note of the dropping of
after worst, and of the fact
that this is possible
after all -est and parallel
forms on the condition
that they have the (or, less
generally, an owner-
form) before them. Only most and
least do not
come under this condition, (see N13-2).
same thing is true of -er forms,
but to a degree
much more limited in use, and in
with these the learner will be better
experience than by rule.)
"Outside in the
streets." Outside, and its opposite
inside,are used as position and
direction words in
addition to being names of things.
" Every time" The
note for Step 10 will
make clear this use of time as a
point, but it is to
be noted further that when if is used
sense with every the word at
is not put in.
" Takes a step."
Give attention to the fact
that with step, takes is used.
" Most animals."
Before a name not limited
by the, this, that, or some
owner-form, most by
itself is regularly used in place of
most of (see
N14-2). But take note again that this
is a use
special to most, which has no
parallel with least,
and that it is possible with most
itself only in the
given sense (see N13-2).
Anywhere. Where is used with
some,and no, for forming
complex words which
have the sense of " to, in, or at
any (every, and
so on) place." The sense of
any here will be
clear from the Note above.
" Men are the only
animals . . . " That is,
persons, men and women, are the only
animals. . .
A very simple and common expansion of
word man makes it the general
name of the sort
of animal of which it is normally the
name of the male.
Basic Step by Step - notes to step 15
News. This word has no form
for more than
one, and the operators and 'pronouns'
relation to it never have that form,
in sense it may be representative of
one bit of news.
In this Step we come to the simple
operation-words used in talking of the
These forms are parallel to was
and were. Let
and put have the same form for
the past as for
the present, and get, keep,make,
say, and, send
make the same changes in the simple
as in the special past forms which the
had ; so that only eight-came
(come), gave (give),
went (go), had (have), took (take),
did (do), saw
(see), and seemed (seem)-are
new here. In the
past there is no special ending after
so on, and be is the only word
which has a
different form for more than one.
and questions with do are put in
the past by the
use of did.
We have here, in addition, further
the use of joining-words in putting
How? puts a question about the
about the time ; where ? about
the place ; and
why? about the reason, of any
act, fact, or event.
All these come at the start of
questions formed in
the regular ways. Who? makes the
request in relation to persons as what
? does in
relation to things. Which? is
the form used
for who ? or what ? when
there is the idea of
making a selection from two or more.
for framing questions with these words
same as those given for what,
dependent on their
relation to the operator (see N12-2).
There are two special points to be
(l) who has a change of form to
whom when it
takes the place of the person acted on:
is there?" but " Whom do you
(2) which, like what, may
be put before the
name of a thing (" Which apple
will you have?"),
but who is only used by itself.
" A man in the street."
We have seen before
the use of in with street.
Here it is the street'
because it is naturally that street (or
them) which was near the building.
" What does the newspaper say?"
expansion of say from the physical act
talking to the use of language in any
form is a
very simple one.
" About the weather."
This use of about as the
word of connection between talk or
its material is a very natural
the physical sense of about.
Talking and writing
are,from one point of view, examples of
erations of the mind, the mind is
as going about and viewing things from
So talk, reading,. writing, opinions,
thoughts and ideas, are all about
circling, as we may say, round the
point on which
attention is fixed.
" Took some poison."
For the act of taking
into one's body through the mouth, as
drink, take by itself is used.
It will be clear from
the rest of what is said, as here, when
this special sense.
" Gave a cry," "
give them a rub." Further
examples of the use of give with
the names of
acts. See N14-1.
" Why did his mother
have . .. ?" Though the
general rule is that questions with
have (as with
be) are formed without the help
of do (See N12-2),
in certain questions this rule is
broken, and do
is used. This is commonly, though not
done: (l) When, as here, the sense of
stronger than that of simply "
being the owner
of " something. In this example, "
poison in the house " is looked on
more as an act
than as a condition. (2) When what is
talked about is (a) a general
to a group, or (b) a regular bit of
Examples are : (a) "Do snakes
(But "Has this snake ears?").
(b) " Do you have
a pain after every meal?"
(But : " Have you a
pain now ") The same thing is true
of the use
of do with have in
statements formed with not
" Snakes do not have ears " ;
" I do not have a
pain after every meal " ; or, as
we might have
said in Step 5, "Very young babies
do not have
Tall. Things which have
naturally an upright
position are said to be tall
when the distance
between the base and the top is great
ison with other things of the same
connection with buildings, trees, and
things, however, the word high
may equally well be
used and is safer for the learner
because tall is
sometimes not quite right (we would not
" a tall wall," for
example) ; but tall is the
only right word for this purpose in
with men and women.
" The best." See
the Note on " the most,"
Step 13. Give attention to the forms of
" This one." One is
frequently used after this,
that, the, with or without the
name of a quality
after them, in place of the name of a
has come in before, and about which
there is no
doubt. It is to be noted that it may be
in this way after a only with a
" Is the coat a long one? "
In addition one may
take the place of a(n) with a
name after it.
So we say: " Here are some apples.
have one ? " (that is, 'an
apple'). " Yes, I
will have that red one."
Used in this way, one
may even take the form for more than
the addition of 's': " Green
apples are not as
sweet as red, ones."
" See that." The use
of that with see is parallel
to its use with say (see Step
12). We see not only
things but facts (see the Notes to Step
the facts which we see frequently have
made clear by complete
the joining-word,that is necessary, as
it is with
statements after say.
"A hole in it." See
N10-2 if any light is nee€ded
on this use of in.
" Have you any money?" The
of forming questions with have'
" Let us go." This
is a very important point.
Let with the name of some
operation is the
regular way of giving an order when the
talking is one of those who are to take
part in the
act. If we are desiring some other
person to do
something, we say, as we have seen, "
But if our desire is to do something
we say " Let us do this."
This form of 'order'
is in fact nearer in sense to a
Basic Step by Step - notes to step 16
Further examples of simple past forms
let(let), said (say),
In addition to these, we have here
new forms, would and might,
which are the past
forms of may and will.
They are used only in
statements joined to other statements
the operation is in the past, such as
starting with that after said,
or saw), or those
dependent on a past statement starting
if " I might go " and
" I would go," for
example, are not simple past statements
plete in themselves. Like will
and may, would
and might may be used before be
with, any of
the special forms. (See the Note to
Ball. The sense is here
clearly the special one
of ' ball for play'.
Trousers. This word, like
scissors, has only the
form for more than one, and has to be
an 'operator' in the same form, even
only one thing is being talked of. See
Music-box. Take note that
this word is not to
be used more generally, as a name for
like apparatus producing music. It is
for certain such things. It would be
say of a radio or a phonograph, for
it was a 'music-box'.
Its. The form for owner from
" Opposite the house."
Opposite,like like (see
N11-2),is the name of a quality which
have only in relation to other things.
reason it is frequently used between
like a direction-word, the full sense
" opposite in relation to."
Sometimes the to is
put in, so we may say " opposite
the house " or
"opposite to the house."
Take note of : " make a
stop," " give a turn,"
"give a laugh," "
give a twist."
" That made us all give
a laugh." We have
seen the development of the idea of
that of producing things to that of
qualities or conditions (Step 5). By a
further step it cones to have the sense
producing or causing acts. This form of
is clearly parallel to the form used
with let, and,
has the same rule of word-order.
" Us all." When
used with we, us, you, they
and them, all is put
after, not, as commonly,
before, the word.
Everyone. One with the
sense of " person "
is used for forming complex words with
some, and any. It may
have the same sense
after no, but is not generally
joined to it.
" Please don't do that."
Please is used with
requests in the form of orders or
may be placed at the front, as here, or
end: " Don't do that,
please."-Take note of
the short form don't, which is
used for do not in everyday talk (See
" He let the tail go."
'go,' when no special direction is
simply the opposite of keeping it in
the hand, or by
some other act of physical force.
" Cruel to," "
kind to." The sense of cruel and
kind makes it clear that these
forms of behaviour in the direction of
When these others are named, this
made clear by to.
" Have a run." As
we have seen, give, do, have,
and make are all used with names
of acts, and
there is no simple rule about when to
of which, though the notes on N10-4 and
will be of some help. In agreement with
said there. we say " have a
run " here because
what we have in mind is the dog's
running. But if the chief idea was that
somewhere, the dog might be said to "
run forward " and so on. On the
other hand, we
never say " make a walk ". So
the only safe guide. Sometimes (but not
frequently) the name of an act may be
one or other of these operators equally
sometimes, it goes with one in one
sense and with
another in another; but most commonly
a fixed use with one or the other, and
uses have to be noted and got by heart.
" So much food that."
A further development
of the use of that as a
joining-word noted in Step
12. It here makes the connection
sign of degree, so, and the statement
of the effect
by which the degree is measured.
" Taken about the
streets." The first sense of
about is " on all sides
of," with the idea of
framing somewhat loosely. (Trees which
'about the house' do not necessarily
complete circle round it). From this it
comes to be used for " in all
and there in" or "on"
(not necessarily round).
'To go about,' by itself, is to
go here and there,
roughly covering all directions, and '
to go about
a place' has the same sense.
Basic Step by Step - notes to step 17
In this Step we come to that form of
names of operations which is a sign
that an act
is (or was) still not complete. All
have the ending -ing. For
writing purposes there
are only two small points to keep in
mind : (a) in
giving, having and making,
the ' e' is dropped ;
(b) in getting, letting, and
putting a second t is put
in. These forms, like those given in
and 14, may naturally be put after any
be, because they have the force
of names of
qualities-they give the idea of a
acting in which the person doing the
act is said
to be. To say that a man is
into the house," or " having
a rest," is simply
like saying that he is " angry,"
" ready for a
meal," or " opposite the
with the Special Past forms may be
sense of an act which is still going
putting being before the special
form. So we
may say that something is, was, will
be, or may
be, being made, and so on.
These -ing-forms may, in
addition, be used as
names of things, in the same way as,
a sense parallel to, the words learning
-ing forms of which examples
are given in
this Step: being, doing, getting,
making, putting, seeing.
" To school."
School is used without a, the, or
any other pointing-word before it when
have in mind is not specially a
but the process of education which goes
on in a
school, and of which the word
representative. That is why we say:
be good for him. The boys go to
school every day.
They are at school all the morning.
They are some-
times late for school. When what
we have in mind
is the place or building ' school',
however, it is
necessary to make use of a
the same way as it is with names such
or table : I went to the
school for a parcel. The
fire 'is at the school. The money is
for a school.
We have seen a like rule working with
go to bed, and so on, N 10-4,
and the learner will
come across the same point in
church, prison, and some other
" Having a walk."
Take note that have is
used with walk as with run.
" Gives an answer to a
question." Two lines
of thought make this use of to a
very clear and
simple one. On the one hand, an answer
necessarily a statement pointing to a
that it is quite natural to say of
answers that they
are to questions; on the other
hand, it is a
simple development from the idea of
answer to the person who puts
the question, to
that of giving it to the
" Which you are putting
out your hand for."
As is made clear in the ABC, p.63,
which is used
for joining to the name of a thing or
sort of statement which does the work
quality-word. In such a statement,
may be representative of that which
operation or that to which the
done, but as a joining-word it is
at the front, even though from its use
statement its natural position might
be at the end, after the name of an act
The other words take their normal order
after it ;
and that is why, in the example given
comes last and may seem to be pointing
nothing. It is, in fact, pointing at
the which at
the start, and this is sometimes made
turning the statement round, and
direction-word first : " for
which you are putting
out your hand," But this may be
with names of directions.
" Such things as plants."
In Step 6 such was
used for pointing to a group which is
thing named earlier. Here it is used
to a group which is like something
named after it,
and joined to it by as. Sometimes, as
example, such is put before the
name of the group;
sometimes it is put after it, and then
before as (" things such
" See how." See the
Note on " see that,"
Step 15. See and say may
be used before
dependent statements starting with any
"Doing things and making
sense of the word thing is
It may be used (as here after make)
for a material
thing ; or (as here after do)
for any part of our
experience which may be pointed at for
purpose of discussion, and as such it
may be an
act,a fact, an event, or a feeling.
" Much more." Two
points are to be noted
here: (l) In comparisons using
more,less, or an
-er form, a suggestion of the
degree to which
one thing is different from another may
by putting much or little
before the form of
comparison; (2) The dropping of the
'knowledge' after more (see N
" One fold after
another." That is, " one fold,
and then another fold, and then another
and so on, to whatever number of folds
necessary. (See the Note on " from
one thing to
another"in connection with Step